COVID-19 RATs are an example of these types of tests but we are interested in the many others on the market.
The University of Wollongong is conducting a small study about them and we'd like to hear from you if you have used one or considered using one.
Simply complete a short survey at:
From here, we may invite you to take part in a paid interview.
For more information, contact Dr Patti Shih: firstname.lastname@example.org
To determine if you have had a heart attack
If you are having chest pain that may be a heart attack
A blood sample drawn from a vein in the arm
This test measures the level of troponin in your blood. Troponin is a protein found in muscle that helps it contract. There are three different troponins: troponin C (TnC), troponin T (cTnT) and troponin I (cTnI). When there is damage to heart muscle, cTnI and cTnT are released into the blood.
A blood sample is taken by needle from a vein in the arm.
No test preparation is needed.
Quick Read patient information sheet
Troponin tests are used, together with an electrocardiogram (ECG), in people with chest pain to see if they have had a heart attack, have unstable angina or have a problem outside the heart. In a heart attack, a blood clot stops the normal flow of blood and oxygen to the muscle. Without oxygen, the heart muscle cells die and release troponin into the bloodstream. The more extensive the damage is, the greater the release and the higher the blood concentrations become. Concentrations can increase within two or three hours and may remain high for 10 to 14 days. The rise or fall in troponin level is important to differentiate any acute cardiac events such as heart attack from chronic elevations not due to a heart attack.
Troponin tests are usually requested in persons who have prolonged chest pain or pain that occurs at rest.
Normally, troponin levels are very low; even a slight rise indicates some damage to the heart (unstable angina or a heart attack). When a patient has a large increase in troponin concentration, then it is highly likely that they have had a heart attack or some other form of heart damage. If a patient with chest pain and known stable angina has a normal and stable troponin result, it is likely that their heart has not been damaged.
Increased troponin concentrations should not be used by themselves to diagnose or rule out a heart attack. A physical examination, clinical history and electrocardiogram (ECG) or imaging investigations are also essential. The internationally agreed definition of heart attack requires evidence of a significant increase in troponin concentration with time, together with evidence of a sudden reduction of heart muscle blood supply (ischaemia) for example the characteristic symptoms of the acute coronary syndrome (ACS), new ECG changes or new imaging changes.
Without evidence of ischaemia, possible causes of rising troponin values include myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), acute heart failure, an arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) or pulmonary embolism (blood clot lodged in the lung). Elevated but unchanging values may be seen in chronic heart failure, high blood pressure (hypertension), severe infections, kidney disease and some chronic inflammatory conditions of muscle.
The test is not generally affected by damage to muscles other than the heart, so injections into muscle and accidents or drugs that damage muscle do not normally affect troponin concentrations.
A heart attack usually occurs because one of the blood vessels (called coronary arteries) that bring blood to your heart muscle is blocked. This happens when a blood clot forms in a blood vessel that is already partially blocked. The partial blockage, which happens gradually over many years, is usually caused by too much fat layered in the wall of the blood vessel (this is often called hardening of the arteries — the medical term for this is atherosclerosis).
Troponin has replaced previous tests as the recommended test for diagnosing a heart attack. CK-MB may be used if troponin tests are not available.
Conditions: Heart attack, heart disease
In the news: New troponin tests.
RCPA Manual - troponin T, troponin I
Medline Plus: Troponin test
European Society of Cardiology - Fourth universal definition of myocardial infarction (2018)
Last Review Date: January 11, 2023